Prior to 1973, mobile telephony was limited to phones installed in cars and other vehicles.
Dr Martin Cooper general manager at Motorola communications system division made the first public mobile phone The prototype handheld phone used by Dr. Cooper weighed 1.1 kilograms.The prototype offered a talk time of just 30 minutes and took 10 hours to
1G: Analog Cellular Networks
1G refers to the first generation of wireless telephone technology (mobile telecommunications). These are the analog telecommunications standards Which was first introduced in 1980 and completed in early 1990s.
• voice signal only
• Analogue cellular phone
• It allows the voice call in 1 country
• AMPS was first launched in USA in 1G mobile system
• It’s data speed upto 2.4kbps
• Poor Voice quality
• Poor battery life
• Large Phone Size
• No Security
• Limited Capacity
• Poor Handoff Reliability
2G: Digital Networks
Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially based on the GSM standard . It was launched in 1991.These 2G systems differed from the previous generation in their use of digital transmission instead of analog transmission, and also by the introduction of advanced and fast phone-to-network signaling.
• 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.
• Picture msg and mms
• It provide better quality and capacity
• These systems are unable to handle complex data such as video
2.5G” using GPRS (General Packet Radio Service):
2.5technology is a cellular wireless technology developed in between 2G and 3G. 2.5g enhance 2 g technology and combine with GPRS .GPRS could provide data rates 64-144 kbps, It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access.
3G : High speed IP data networks
As the use of 2G phones became more widespread and people began to use mobile phones in their daily lives, so it became clear that demand for data services (access to the internet) was growing. The first 3G technology was launched in 2000s. Data transmission speed increased from 144 kbps – 2mbps. in 2003 with the arrival of 3G cellular broadband service, which would herald a new era of smartphones with full
• Providing faster communication
• Send/receive large email messages
• high Speed web/more security
• video conference/3D gaming
• TV Streaming
• High bandwidth required
• Expensive 3G phone
4G Growth of mobile broadband
4G provides, in addition to the usual voice and other services of 3G,The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol.
It is capable to provide 100 mbps -1 gbps speed
It provide any kind of services at any time anywhere as per user requirement.
• More security
• High speed
• High capacity
• Low cost per-bit etc.
• Battery uses is more
• Need complicated h/w and more expensive
5G, is the latest iteration of cellular technology, engineered to greatly increase the speed and responsiveness of wireless networks.which will deliver 10 times faster speeds than the current 4G technologies. 5G base stations are expected to offer 20 Gbps download and 10 Gbps upload speeds, 5G will also enable a sharp increase in the amount of data transmitted over wireless systems due to more available bandwidth and advanced antenna technology. It will also become the backbone of the Internet of Things (IoT) 5G is still in a developing phase. It is expected to be commercially available by 2020. Some of the top provides for the 5G infrastructure are Nokia, Ericsson, Huawei and Verizon.
IoT (Internet of Things)
What is the difference between with or without IoT?
Is that a human had to run from machine to machine for telling what to do , but with the iot device can interact to each other could be pre instructed on what to do and when to do.
What is the IoT :
The definition of the Internet of things has evolved due to convergence of multiple technologies, real time analytics, machine learning, commodity sensors, and embedded systems. IoT also called as internet of object, refer to a wireless network between object.consists of all the web-enabled devices that collect, send and act on data they acquire from their surrounding environments using embedded sensors, processors and communication hardware.
How it’s work IoT:
Foure fundamental terms in IOT
First, sensors or devices help in collecting very minute data from the surrounding
Next, is gateway it is pass all that collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure
3) Data Processing
Once the data gets to the cloud, software performs some kind of processing on it.
4) User Interface
Next, the information is made useful to the end-user in some way. This could be via an
alert to the user (email, text, notification, etc). For example, a text alert when the
temperature is too high in the company’s cold storage.
Application of IoT:
1) IOT in Everyday life
2) IOT in healthcare
3) IOT in smart city
4) IOT in agriculture
5) IOT in industrial automation
6) IOT in disaster management